联合行动的规划过程探析Joint operation planning process
导读：这篇文章主要就联合行动（Joint operation）的规划过程进行分析，从启动、任务分析、行动（COA）发展的课程、计划或订单发展等步骤进行论述。本文由 论文网留学生中心作业写作频道 留学生作业栏目整理推荐。
The Joint Operation Plan 留学生作业ning Process（JOPP）supports planning at all levels and for missions across the full range of military operations. This planning process applies to both contingency planning and CAP. The JOPP is an ord 英国留学生作业erly, analytical planning process that consists of a set of logical steps to analyze a mission, develop, analyze, and compare alternative COAs, or courses of action, select the best COA, and produce a plan or order.
Step 1: Initiation. The Joint Operation Planning Process or JOPP begins when the President, SecDef, or CJC澳洲留学生作业S recognizes a potential for military capability to be employed in response to a potential or actual crisis and initiates planning by deciding to develop military options. The GEF, JSCP, and related strategic guidance statements serve as the primary guidance to begin contingency planning. Military options normally are developed in combination with other nonmilitary options so that the President can resp留学生作业格式ond with all the appropriate instruments of national power. Often in CAP, the JFC and staff will perform an assessment of the initiating directive to determine time available until mission execution, the current status of intelligence products and staff estimates, and other factors relevant to the specific planning situation.
Step 2: Mission Analysis. The primary purpose of mission analysis is to understand the problem and purpose of the operation and issue appropriate guidance to drive the rest of the planning process. A primary consideration for a supported commander during mission analysis is the national strategic end state the broadly expressed political, military, economic, social, informational, and other conditions that should exist after the conclusion of a campaign or operation. The primary inputs to mission analysis are the higher headquarters planning directive, other strategic guidance, the Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment or JIPOE, and initial staff estimates. The primary products of mission analysis are a restated mission statement and the JFC's initial intent statement, the Commander's Critical Information Requirements or CCIRs, and planning guidance. The figure below describes the key inputs and resulting outputs of mission analysis.（ 论文网http://www.dxlws.com/）
Step 3: Course of Action (COA) Development. A COA consists of the following information: what type of military action will occur; why the action is required (purpose); who will take the action; when the action will begin; where the action will occur; and how the action will occur (method of employment of forces). A valid COA will have the characteristics outlined in the figure below. Once a valid COA is developed, the staff converts the approved COA into a CONOPS. COA determination will consist of four primary activities: COA development, analysis and wargaming, comparison, and approval.
Step 4: COA Analysis and Wargaming. The commander and staff analyze each tentative COA separately according to the commander's guidance. COA analysis identifies advantages and disadvantages of each proposed friendly COA. Wargaming provides a means for the commander and participants to analyze a tentative COA, improve their understanding of the operational environment, and obtain insights that otherwise might not have occurred. Based upon time available, the commander should wargame each tentative COA against the most probable and the most dangerous adversary COAs.
Step 5: COA Comparison. An objective process whereby COAs are considered independently of each other and evaluated against a set of criteria that are established by the staff and commander. The goal is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of COAs so that a COA with the highest probability of success can be selected or developed. The commander and staff develop and evaluate a list of important criteria, or governing factors, consider each COA's advantages and disadvantages, identify actions to overcome disadvantages, make final tests for feasibility and acceptability and weigh the relative merits of each.
Step 6: COA Approval. The staff determines the best COA to recommend to the commander. The staff briefs the commander on the COA comparison and the analysis and wargaming results, including a review of important supporting information. This briefing often takes the form of a commander's estimate. This information could include such factors as, the current status of the joint force; the current JIPOE; and assumptions used in COA development. The commander selects a COA or forms an alternate COA based upon the staff recommendations. The nature of a potential contingency could make it difficult to determine a specific end state until the crisis actually occurs. In these cases, the JFC may choose to present two or more valid COAs for approval by higher authority. A single COA can then be approved when the crisis occurs and specific circumstances become clear.
Step 7: Plan or Order Development. The commander and staff, in collaboration with subordinate and supporting components and organizations, expand the approved COA into a detailed joint operation plan or OPORD by first developing an executable CONOPS, which clearly and concisely expresses what the JFC intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources. It describes how the actions of the joint force components and supporting organizations will be integrated, synchronized, and phased to accomplish the mission, including potential branches and sequels. Contingency planning will result in operation plan development, while CAP typically will lead directly to OPORD development.
As you've seen, joint operation planning is essential to supporting our national security strategy. Your support in the development and execution of these plans is vital to ensure that air and space capabilities and forces are properly employed in support of national objectives.