硕士论文代写-【Abstract】 In the 1950s in western, the dominant internalism in the history of technology has been increasingly challenged by scholars, which led the contextism become the mainstream in this field, and led the arise of Thomas Hughes’system approach. Later, Hughes’system approach has become one of the important annalistic programmes in the history of technology and has shaped this field for nearly forty years. The nature of this system approach is to enfold the contextual factors in the analysis of technology, such as political, economic, cultural factors and so on. The emphasis of the shaping role of social factors to the development of technology is what the group of European sociologists who studied technologies as socially constructed aims at, therefore Hughes’approach also become an significant branch in this field. This article described the system approach in the above two aspects.The article firstly analyzed the academic background which caused the arise of Hughes’ system approach and gave details about what is technological system and the relevant definitions. Furthermore, the author analyzed how to understand technological system in terms of system approach. The analysis focused on the pattern of evolution and some other crucial conceptual tools, such as reverse salient, technological momentum and technological style, and as a conclusion, the author pointed out that though the analysis of those conceptual tools we can // discern clearly how the technology is socially constructed. After the general statement, the article observed the development of technological systems in the history and how Hughes accordingly polished his system approach. The author divided the evolution of Hughes’approach into there stages:Early on the power system, the medium-term on large-scale production systems research and the latter on the system era. In this chapter, the paper also described the Taylorism, Fordism and information system in details. Finally, the article has criticized the system approach base on two aspects, the first is its status in the history of technology, and the second is how the scholars criticized it. At last, the paper pointed out that Hughes’system approach has significant enlightenment for the improvement of our China’ History of Technology at this stage, and for the studies of industrial philosophy.
代写硕士论文-【关键词】 休斯； 技术系统方法； 技术系统； 技术系统演化模式； 落后突出部；
【Key words】 Thomas P. Hughes； System approach； Technological system； Pattern of evolution； Reverse salient；