留学生经济学专业作业The University of Northampton
IBO3007 – Global Business Development
Assignment 1 2010/11
Student name:___ZHENG YA_________________________
Title (please tick as appropriate)
□ (1) Critically discuss the view that ‘anti-globalisation perspectives and arguments seriously undervalue the benefits that globalisation has delivered for all countries’.
√ (2) ‘As increasing internationalisation is causing business practices in every country to converge, national cultural differences are no longer of relevance to global businesses.’ Discuss.
Marking tutor □ Jon Stephens □ Graham Wilkinson
Hand-in date: Monday 22 November 2010.
Students should hand-in one printed copy to the Park Campus SAO and an electronic copy via the IBO3007 NILE site.
Tutor comments and grade
Nowadays, with the increasing development of international business, economic globalization has become an irreversible trend. In the era of global economy integration, where will the culture go? When you are in the moment of economic globalization sweeps the whole world, I wonder if you think about such a problem: would global economy integration lead to cultural integration? In Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction, John Tomlinson describes such a very ordinary domestic family picture to readers: “a family watching television – something millions of us do every evening. Yet there is clearly something extraordinary about the image, something that immediately strikes an exotic note. The family is watching in the open air; instead of armchairs, they are seated on blankets and oil-drums or on the desert sand…there is a text accompanying the photograph which tells us the family is part of an aboriginal community, watching television in a remote part of Australia on the edge of the Tanami desert.” Someone infers domination from these words and the described image. They think that it presents a phenomenon called cultural imperialism. And people go further to extend the meaning of cultural imperialism to cultural globalization.
The topic of this essay will discuss that if national cultural differences no longer affect global business, and if economic globalization would lead to cultural globalization. Some people insist on the positive opinion that is cultural globalization is an inevitable trend, that means national cultural differences is disappearing. You can see people around the world are drinking coke, eating McDonald’s, listening to rock, and watching Hollywood movies. On the other hand, somebody else lean to an opposite opinion, which is ingratiation and diversification are developing at the same time, even modernity promoting the appearance of differentiation and localisation. The reason why they support the second view is that without integration people won’t have diversified needs. Cultural differences won’t put off the global business development, but is good for creative business process. The following is the discussion of the two different views in details.
The economic globalization is a continuous movement process, which presented mainly in economic openness, the liberalization of trade, the concentration of capital and market between different countries. This is a process of constant development. Moreover, what is culture? In 1871 E.B. Taylor, the famous anthropologist, defined culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and many other capabilities and habits acquired by members of society." Therefore, cultural complexity will become an insurmountable obstacle on the way of cultural integration. The prominent features of culture are modernity, inclusiveness and ethnicity. Human culture development is a conformed and creative process of different national cultures; the cultural integration is a process of integration and innovation around the world. The essential part is cultural expansion.
It is acknowledged that increasing internationalisation causes the business integration in every country, so that some people point out that national culture differences will not be related to global business. This means culture will go to integration under the trend of economic globalization. The development declaration of United Nation pointed out that globalization is an irreversible trend nowadays. This globalization is not only economic integration, but also the cultural integration that on the basis of all ethnic groups with cultural value.
Economic globalization provides a premise for the reducing national cultural differences, so that cultural integration and innovation can extend to every corner of the world. Because of the deepening of countries’ economic exchange and dependent degree, it makes cultural integration and innovation as possible. For both business and society, economy is the foundation which determines the superstructure. The economy goes to integration, the business goes to globalization, so that the national culture will go to unobstructed exchange. The economic laws analyse there must be costs in the exchange of different national culture, with the development of economic globalization, the costs need to reduce as low as possible. In this case, the essence of reducing costs is to improve the communication and exchange of different culture. The final objective of economic globalization is to reduce the exchanged costs to zero, that is cultural integration.
Social life is the tie point of economy and culture. Culture reflects life and also be from life. Economic globalization change and almost unify people’s life style and production concept. Furthermore, it asks all participators for a certain consensus based on economic standard and people’s behaviour standard. This agreement will largely be culture consensus, and the growing demand of cultural values and culture consensus provides continuous motivation for integration and innovation of culture in the global scope. Even though the cultural integration has contradictions and conflicts which are defined by the universality of contradiction and conflict, they reflect the existence of cultural integration process. The national cultural differences are abating influence to global business with the strong developing cultural integration.
“The cultural factors affecting international business operations include cultural awareness, identification and dynamics of cultures, behavioural practices and strategies for dealing with cultural differences.” Today, English is a worldwide language, and become the second language of most of non-English speaking countries. In china, the education mode and concept come from the west, and even the rule of a lesson with 45 minutes is learnt from the west. Both the assignment in school and business project at work, we add an attached file with English version after the content, or directly write in English. Therefore, no matter which country and national culture, this article is convenient to circulate.
Although economic globalization is not fully realized, but we have already felt and experienced it coming: for far see that all doors of countries are opened to develop economy, international business organizations begin to emerge endlessly, international trade is becoming more and more frequent; look nearly that multinational companies are growing, mass communication tools are widely used... But the economic globalization, does not represent culture must be on the pathway of integration.
The existence of a kind of culture must have its own tradition and characters. In this world, everyone belongs to a nation, and every nation with a unique cultural connotation makes the whole nation together to form the powerful national cohesion. In this group they have the common ancestor, the common life habits, the common language, the common words and even the common business concept. This commonness represents their personalities, distinguish them with other nation, and display their characters. Every nation has its own national dignity and national pride, even in the time of economic globalization, the national characters are not allowed to be engulfed and submerged by this integration wave. National character and national culture have already become challenge of global business. Even in today with the high economic development, multinational corporation have to consider carefully because once understand the national characters it can bring lots of business opportunities to the businessman.
Culture development firstly depends on the ability of human learning and transferring knowledge to the next generation. Then every generation add new content to their previous product. It is an inherited and developing process, the former inherit, the latter develop, and both of them are indispensable. Admittedly, in today's society, we have the same rules of the game, the same operation systems, but the inevitable end of economic integration is not cultural integration, but cultural diversity. Culture transferred from the initial system with the diversity style, and will also be continued in the diversity style. In the cultural diversity, national cultures influence each other, interact with each other, frequent contact with each other, respect and learn from each other. The new culture situation is to seek harmony without uniformity, which means various national cultures mutually intersect and promote, but not destroy, assimilate with each other. Therefore, the mutual reaction of all national cultures does not make various cultures lose their traditions and characters, but promotes them with the unique charm to affect and change the international business and economic globalization.
In the business communication, except spoken language, body language is also important. But in different national culture, the same sign has many different meanings. For example, a nod in China, often only say it’s noticed, while the westerners interpret it for sure; with a finger to someone, in China and Arab countries it is a very common gesture, but in Europe it is very impolite. In the daily operation of a multinational corporation, the Japanese never directly say “no”, but the Europeans not very scruple in this aspect; Chinese people dare to suggest and criticize their superior, but because of the issue of face, their expression is very tactful, there is a big difference with the recommendation system of the Western Europe enterprise; the Chinese very bother about the Indian concept of time, as well as the very punctual German and British people, however, French and Spanish people are without this kind of problem.
In a conclusion, cultural integration is not one party of culture destroys another party of culture, or the powerful culture merges the weak one, but two or a variety of cultures exchange, learn and change. This is the progress of human civilization performance, and the law of history development. These changes not belong to anyone of national culture. The new business culture is independent from others and full of essences to catch the current trend economic globalization. In modern industrial civilization, human is able to overcome environment and cultural differences. The advanced technology and the concept of internationalization are not subject to the historical tradition, the cultural custom and stereotype. In addition, with the highly developed information exchange, it leads to the artificialized modern culture of many developed cities around the world is almost same. However, culture integration is not perfect as people’s image; actually, this highly developed and sophisticated modern culture is very fragile, it brings the unbalance of cultural ecology.
Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., Sullivan, D.P. International Business: Environments and
Operations (13th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Tomlinson, J. (1991) Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction (reprint ed.)
Taylor, E.B., www.records.viu.ca/~soules/media112/culture.htm