会计准则与财务比率分析-新准则对财务比率分析

发布时间:2019-09-23 20:47

财务报告新准则对财务比率分析的影响
The new guidelines on financial ratio analysis of the effect of
Any changes of the accounting rules and the economic environment is closely related to, the scientific accounting standards should be able to reflect the economic situation changes, financial ratio calculation and analysis must also be adapted to the objective changes in requirements.
( a )" total assets turnover rate"," liquid assets turnover rate" and" non current assets turnover rate" is no longer necessary analysis and calculation
The traditional financial ratios analysis usually requires the calculation of" total assets turnover rate" and" after the decomposition rate of turnover of current assets" and" non current assets turnover rate", the purpose of this two respects, one is to grasp the enterprise assets operation and management effectiveness; on the other hand is easy different accounting between the main overall comparison, because it seems better than each single turnover rate among the more meaningful or more able to describe the problem. If from the traditional point of view, this calculation, analysis and comparison should be said there is no problem. However, with the social economic situation continues to develop and change, the modern enterprise in comparison with the traditional enterprises have many substantive changes, so that the three turnover of the necessity of the existence of a great discount.
First, the traditional enterprise assets structure is comparatively simple. Liquid assets is mainly composed of" cash"," receivables" and" inventory" form, non-current assets are basically is" fixed assets". Compared with the modern enterprise, its assets form in both category and content are in much more complex than the traditional enterprises.
Second, the traditional enterprise income structure is comparatively simple, income is the basic content of business income. Modern enterprise's income than traditional enterprise" rich" many, including not only the business income, including fair value and investment profit.
Therefore, the traditional enterprise income is income is achieved all the assets of the business operation results, both existence is very clear corresponding relation. However the development of society the requirement of modern enterprises have more than the traditional enterprises, to enrich the content of assets, the constant change of economic situation, the assets of the operation with a clear purpose, use different assets to earn different income has become the consensus of modern enterprises.
The question now is, the three turnover rate is not based on business income ( income / total assets, business income and assets, business income, non-current assets ) were calculated and analyzed, in the modern enterprise situation, operating income and assets ( including total assets, liquid assets, non-current assets the causal link ) have been discounted, therefore, based on the revenue of the three turnover rate is now a theoretical meaning but no substantive role; moreover, due to the modern enterprise assets constitute differ in thousands of ways, if using the three turnover in various enterprises undertake overall analysis and comparison, the misleading action is self-evident. Therefore, the author thinks, with the economic and social development and the changing of some of the traditional financial ratios, the cancelled is now represent the general trend, then, cancel" total assets turnover rate"," liquid assets turnover rate" and" non current assets turnover" calculation and analysis, the time is now.
( two) should be added to" share all recognized income" calculation and analysis
" Enterprise Accounting Standards No. thirtieth -- financial statements" the second regulation, financial statements shall at least include: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, the rights and interests of the owners ( shareholders) change statements and notes to the financial statements. In the new accounting standards for business enterprises, the original to the balance sheet of schedule in the form of equity changes form, into the need to balance sheet, profit statement and cash flow statement of disclosure of the fourth financial statements.
This new change is not only in form, from the rights and interests of the owners ( shareholders) of the statement of changes in general framework, embodies the comprehensive income ( also known as the concept of comprehensive income, similarly hereinafter ). From" enterprise accounting standards -- basic principles" and" Enterprise Accounting Standards No. thirtieth -- financial statements", comprehensive income is income, expenses, profits, loss of elements constituted by, but as a report, it can be divided into two parts:
Comprehensive income = ( net income net income, which has been confirmed and revenue, expenses, gains, losses, in the profit table report ) + other comprehensive income ( has confirmed the unrealized gains, losses, in the statement of changes in Equity Report )
Combining with other comprehensive income, not only benefit and loss, net income also gain and loss. The two part of the gains and losses of difference is whether implementation. Net income composition are realized; other comprehensive income composition is only confirmed.
In view of this, as part of a comprehensive income net income has obviously can not reflect the current business of financial performance, and investors are concerned about" EPS" refers to the net income is calculated on the basis of, so will the" EPS" information as a measure of ability of profit of a company 's standard biased. Ken Baer ( 1999) with 73 companies as the sample under study, revealed the presence of large negative comprehensive benefits company; Wu Jinlong ( 2006) with 100 home listed on the New York stock exchange in 2002 and subsequent accounting periods at the end of the year end of the listed companies as the sample of comprehensive income, found 2000, 2002 the United States securities market price the decline will make many company suffered huge unrealised losses, these are available for sale securities unrealized losses are components of other comprehensive income.
A more comprehensive, objective measurement of the gain ability of the enterprise, should be based on comprehensive income idea, add a" share all recognized income index", i.e.:
Share all recognized income = all solutions that benefit / year end total number of ordinary shares
This indicator for investors will undoubtedly have a higher predictive value.


  任何会计准则的变化都与其所处的经济环境密切相关,科学的会计准则应当能够反映经济形势发展变化的要求,财务比率的计算与分析也必须适应这种客观变化的要求。

  (一)“总资产周转率”、“流动资产周转率”和“非流动资产周转率”的计算与分析不再必要

  传统的财务比率分析通常需要计算“总资产周转率”以及分解后的“流动资产周转率”和“非流动资产周转率”,这样做的目的有两个方面,一方面是在总体上把握企业资产运行状态及其管理效果的好坏;另一方面是便于不同会计主体之间进行整体上的比较,因为这样似乎比各单项周转率之间的比较更有意义或者说更能够说明问题。如果从传统的角度看,这种计算、分析和比较应当说不存在什么问题。但是,随着社会经济形势的不断发展变化,现代企业与传统企业相比发生了许多实质上的变化,从而使得这三个周转率存在的必要性大打折扣。

  第一,传统企业的资产构成比较简单。流动资产主要由“现金”、“应收款项”和“存货”构成,非流动资产则基本上就是“固定资产”。现代企业与之相比,其资产的构成无论在种类还是在内容上都要比传统企业复杂的多。

  第二,传统企业的收益构成比较简单,收益的基本内容是营业收入。现代企业的收益构成要比传统企业“丰富”许多,不仅包括营业收入,还包括公允价值变动损益和投资损益等。

  因此,传统企业收益即营业收入的取得是企业全部资产运做的结果,两者存在着十分清晰明确的对应关系。然而社会的发展要求现代企业拥有比传统企业更多、内容更丰富的资产,经济形势的不断变化,使得其资产的运作带有更明确的目的性,运用不同的资产赚取不同的收益已经成为现代企业的共识。

  现在的问题是,这三个周转率无一不是以营业收入为基础(营业收入/总资产、营业收入/流动资产、营业收入,非流动资产)进行计算分析的,在现代企业状况下,营业收入与资产(包括总资产、流动资产、非流动资产)的因果必然联系已经大打了折扣,因此,基于营业收入计算的这三个周转率现在已是空有理论意义而无实质作用;再者,由于各现代企业资产的构成千差万别,如果运用这三个周转率在各个企业之间进行总体的分析和比较,其误导作用是不言而喻的。所以,笔者认为,随着社会经济的发展和企业的不断变化,一些传统财务比率的取消已是大势所趋,那么,取消“总资产周转率”、“流动资产周转率”和“非流动资产周转率”的计算与分析,现在正是时候。

  (二)应当增加“每股全部已确认收益”的计算与分析

  《企业会计准则第30号——财务报表列报》第2条规定,财务报表至少应当包括:资产负债表、利润表、现金流量表、所有者权益(股东权益)变动表和财务报表附注。在新的企业会计准则中,原来以资产负债表附表形式出现的所有者权益增减变动表,成了必须与资产负债表、利润表和现金流量表并列披露的第四张财务报表。

  这一新变化绝不是仅仅停留在形式上,从所有者权益(股东权益)变动表的综合框架来看,体现了综合收益(也称全面收益,下同)的理念。从《企业会计准则——基本准则》和《企业会计准则第30号——财务报表列报》看,综合收益是由收入、费用、利得、损失要素所共同构成的,但作为报告,它可分为两个部分:

  综合收益=净收益(净收益,即已确认且已实现的收入、费用、利得、损失,在利润表中报告)+其他综合收益(已确认未实现的利得、损失,在所有者权益变动表中报告)

  从上式可知,不仅其他综合收益中有利得和损失,净收益中也有利得和损失。这两部分的利得与损失的区别在于是否实现。净收益的组成都是已实现的;其他综合收益的组成仅是已确认的。

  鉴于此,作为综合收益一部分的净收益显然已不能全面地反映企业当期的财务业绩,而投资者所关心的“每股收益”又是以净收益为计算依据的,所以将“每股收益”信息作为衡量一个企业盈利能力的标准就有失偏颇。肯贝尔等(1999)以73家公司为样本进行研究,发现存在大量负的综合收益的公司;吴金龙(2006)以100家在纽约证券交易所上市的会计期间于2002年年终及以后结束的列示综合收益的公司为样本,发现2000年—2002年美国证券市场股价的下跌会使许多公司遭受巨大的未实现损失,这些可供销售证券上的未实现损失是其他综合收益的组成部分。

  要更全面、客观地衡量企业的盈利能力,应当借助于综合收益理念,增加一个“每股全部已确认收益”指标,即:

  每股全部已确认收益=全部已解认收益/年度末普通股股份总数

  这一指标对于投资者而言无疑具有更高的预测价值。

 

如果您有论文代写需求,可以通过下面的方式联系我们
点击联系客服

提交代写需求

如果您有论文代写需求,可以通过下面的方式联系我们。